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Bounded by the Atlantic Ocean on the East, Brazil has a coastline of 7,491 km (4,655 mi). It is bordered on the north by Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname, and the French overseas region of French Guiana; on the northwest by Colombia; on the west by Bolivia and Peru; on the Southwest by Argentina and Paraguay; and on the south by Uruguay. Numerous archipelagos form part of Brazilian territory, such as Fernando de Noronha, Rocas Atoll, Saint Peter and Paul Rocks, and Trindade and Martim Vaz. It borders all other South American countries except Ecuador and Chile.
Brazil was a colony of Portugal from the landing of Pedro Álvares Cabral in 1500 until 1815, when it was elevated to the Rank of Kingdom and the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil, and the Algarves was formed. The colonial bond was in fact broken in 1808, when the capital of the Portuguese colonial Empire was transferred from Lisbon to Rio de Janeiro after Napoleon invaded Portugal. In 1960, the capital was transferred to Brasilia. The independence from the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves was achieved in 1822. Initially Independent as the Empire of Brazil, period when it was a unitary state governed under a constitutional monarchy and a parliamentary system, the country has been a presidential republic since 1889, after a military coup d'état proclaimed the Republic, although the bicameral legislature, now called Congress, dates back to 1824, when the first constitution was ratified. Its current Constitution, formulated in 1988, defines Brazil as a Federal Republic. The Federation is formed by the union of the Federal District, the 26 States, and the 5,564 Municipalities.
The Brazilian economy is the world's seventh largest economy by nominal GDP and the eighth largest by purchasing power parity. Brazil is one of the world's fastest growing major economies. Economic reforms have given the country new international recognition. Brazil is a founding member of the United Nations, the G20, CPLP, Latin Union, the Organization of Ibero-American States, Mercosul and the Union of South American Nations, and is one of the BRIC countries.
Brazil is also home to a diversity of wildlife, natural environments, and extensive natural resources in a variety of protected habitats. Habitats in Brazil include tropical rainforests, pampas, and the Pantanal Swamp. Rio de Janeiro is the second-largest city in Brazil (And was the country's capital between 1793 and 1960). Brazil is home to many species of animals, and also many tourists. The animals of Brazil are currently in danger of becoming extinct, not just from smugglers, but also the lack of food, forest fires, inhabitant surroundings, deforestation, and poachers.
The state of Rio de Janeiro was one of the states that hosted the the 2014 FIFA World Cup. It will also host the Olympic and Paralympic Games in 2016.